Elsewhere, olive and date kernels, grape seeds, and pomegranate rinds have been discovered.
This period includes the early (3000 ), and part of the late Bronze Age.
The earliest literary evidence of local agricultural activity is provided by an inscription on the grave of the Egyptian officer Weni, who conducted a military expedition in Palestine during the reign of Pepi ) "The army returned in peace after smiting the country of the sand dwellers [the inhabitants of the coastal plain]…
In this area and at nearby Khirbet al-Bitar, excavations have unearthed ricewheat (Triticum dicoccum), einkorn (Triticum monococcum), two-rowed barley (Hordeum distichum), and lentils (Lens esculenta Moench).
Some archaeologists date the beginnings of agriculture in Palestine to the Mesolithic period, when the Natufian culture made its appearance with its bone and flint artifacts, some of which have survived to the present day. Carmel, a flint sickle with its handle shaped to represent a fawn's head has been found.
To that same period belong the sickles, mortars, and pestles which have been discovered in other localities in Palestine.
To this period, likewise, belong excavated, prehistoric locations such as the Abu Uzbah cave on Mt.
Carmel, the Neolithic cave near Sha'ar ha-Golan in the Jordan Valley and the lower strata of Jericho.