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This transition does not begin until long after pyramids are out of fashion in Egypt.Bonnet notes that sacrificial victims appear and become increasingly common in the Middle Kerma period.“In the Early Kerma period, 2500-2050 BC, burials are marked by a low, circular superstructure of slabs of black sandstone, stuck into the ground in concentric circles. Smaller burials are found surrounding the larger tombs of important individuals.Tombs progress from simple mounds to Egyptian-inspired pyramid complexes.He interpreted these based on his knowledge of ancient Egyptian funerary practices, and since many of the grave goods found were Egyptian, he had no reason to think otherwise. Reisner fit this archaeology into his understanding of ancient life along the Nile, assuming that Kerma was a satellite city of the ancient Egyptians.It was not until the late twentieth century that excavations by Charles Bonnet and the University of Geneva confirmed that this was not the case.The Lower/Western Deffufa (a massive tomb structure) was found closer to the river; the Upper/Eastern Deffufa is a few kilometers away from the river in a cemetery.Most burials were slightly flexed, lying on their sides.

Reisner’s precise excavation techniques, site reports, and other publications made later reinterpretation of his results possible.After the sacking of Kerma, the cemetery was used to host the kings of the 25th or "Napatan" dynasty of the Kingdom of Kush from Upper (Southern) Nubia.Early archaeology at Kerma started with an Egyptian and Sudanese survey made by George A.“It is within the walls of the religious center that a bronze workshop was built.The workshop consisted of multiple forges and the artisans’ techniques appear to have been quite elaborate.

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