Heilig also developed what he referred to as the "Telesphere Mask" (patented in 1960).The patent application described the device as "a telescopic television apparatus for individual use...In 1938, Antonin Artaud described the illusory nature of characters and objects in the theatre as "la réalité virtuelle" in a collection of essays, Le Théâtre et son double.The English translation of this book, published in 1958 as The Theater and its Double, is the earliest published use of the term "virtual reality".The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene typically enhance how the real surroundings look in some way.Some AR systems use a camera to capture the user's surroundings or some type of display screen which the user looks at (e.g., Microsoft's Holo Lens, Magic Leap).Around the same time, Douglas Engelbart used computer screens both as input and output devices.
All modern VR displays are based on technology developed for smartphones including: gyroscopes and motion sensors for tracking head, hand, and body positions; small HD screens for stereoscopic displays; and small, lightweight and fast processors.
The Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML), first introduced in 1994, was intended for the development of "virtual worlds" without dependency on headsets.
The Web3D consortium was subsequently founded in 1997 for the development of industry standards for web-based 3D graphics.
The program was a crude virtual simulation of Aspen, Colorado in which users could wander the streets in one of the three modes: summer, winter, and polygons.
In 1979 Eric Howlett developed the Large Expanse, Extra Perspective (LEEP) optical system.